The term “civilization” refers to the level of development at which people of a community can co-exist in harmony. The world has witnessed numerous civilizations growing and decaying. We, humans, are proof of these deep-rooted civilizations. During ancient times, civilizations were the first step toward stable communities. These further led to the development of empires and states.
Mentioned below are the top 15 advanced ancient civilizations or civilizations that invented new technology or arts.
1. Ancient China
China is often termed one of the oldest civilizations. Ancient China is known for its rich culture that has its roots even in modern times. Ancient China is primarily known for its “Four Great Inventions,” consisting of printing, paper-making, compass, and gunpowder. It is also known for inventing “Shadow clocks,” which were predecessors to sundials.
2. Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was truly one of the most influential and strongest civilizations of all. The people were highly skilled in mathematics, architecture, and astronomy. This civilization was also respected for its medicinal knowledge. They had advanced the medicinal aspects to a great extent. Ancient Egyptians were among the first to employ opium for pain relief, and linen dipped in honey to treat infections. They could also treat fractured bones.
3. Inca Civilization
The Inca Civilization constituted a larger portion of the empire in pre-Columbian American times. It had its origins in ancient Peru. The people of this civilization were mostly vegan. They introduced several creative and interesting agricultural techniques. They were widely known for their beautiful stonework. This civilization created a highly efficient network of roads for easy trade and transportation.
4. Ancient Greece
This civilization saw marvelous growth in several areas – artistic, scientific, and political. They were celebrated for their sophistication in architecture, math, and astrology. Medicine and philosophy, too, grew at a larger scale during this civilization. The ancient Greeks carved a surprisingly beautiful niche in literature as well with their theories about drama and playwriting skills. The literary technique of incorporating “dialogue” was introduced by them.
5. Osirian Civilization
This civilization was highly developed and was way ahead of its times. It had well-built roads, ports, and several other conveniences for its people. People of this civilization had great relations with other commercial centers. It was also a commercial center for trade. They created gigantic megalithic structures that were earthquake-proof!
6. Mayan Civilization
Famous for their knowledge of astrology and mathematics, the Mayans could measure solar years with excellent accuracy and incorporated excellent agricultural techniques such as wild harvesting and forest gardens. They are also known for their beautiful and mesmerizing ancient temples. Maya script was known far and wide as very sophisticated and developed.
7. Indus Valley Civilization
This is undoubtedly one civilization that is known to all. History books often talk about the greatness of the Indus valley civilization. A marker of extraordinary town-planning skills, trade, and art, this civilization used a language that is yet to be decoded. Their drainage system continues to amaze archaeologists to date.
8. The Aztec Civilization
This civilization was largely based on a Mesoamerican culture. They followed the practice of making sacrifices to God. Their civilization witnessed grand temples in the shape of pyramids. Their agricultural techniques were simple yet amazing. They possessed extremely sophisticated military and political knowledge, which helped them win nearly 500 city-states!
9. The Roman Civilization
The ancient Romans introduced the worshipping of several Gods and Goddesses. The Colosseum itself speaks for the great architectural style of the Romans. The civilization is popular for its long-enduring monuments. Graffiti, a modern-day art, was seen and practiced a lot in ancient Rome.
10. The Persian Civilization
The civilization that was initially started by a group of nomadic tribes left behind great ruins, intricate metalwork, and gold treasures. Their religion, “Zoroastrianism,” is practiced to date. Mail service was set up during this civilization. They built several linking routes between continents.
11. Danubian Culture
A nameless civilization from 5500 BC in the Danube Valley, it was known for its various mother-goddess figurines. One of the unique features of this civilization was that it buried gold in its graves.
12. Ain Ghazal
The name of the civilization means “gazelle of the spring” in Arabic. A neolithic society, it displayed the shift from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to one based on settling down in one place for farming and agriculture, quickly becoming a favorite subject of study for anthropologists and archaeologists.
13. The Catalhoyuk Settlement
One of the best examples of early urban civilization rooted in agriculture. Their homes were unique in the sense that their homes were tightly packed. They had no door or window. The entrance to the house was made through space on the roof.
14. Australian Aboriginals
Aboriginals first arrived in Australia nearly 50000 years ago. One interesting fact about them is that their traces are still seen and located in the present times. It is famous for “Dreamtime,” which refers to a creation story and a destination after death.
15. Norte Chico Civilization
Their people were able to succeed without writing, yet their gigantic pyramids and houses hint at the possibility of a properly functioning government and social classes. They are known for their adobe houses and pyramids made out of stones. It is also called Caral Civilization.
Without the existence of these civilizations, our world would assuredly not have been the same. Therefore, it becomes imperative to acknowledge and celebrate the contribution of ancient civilizations to shaping the world into what we see today.